The British invaded Mesopotamia (now called Iraq) in 1914 to protect their oil interests and they remained until 1958. Following are some quotes from the book: "The British cobbled three disparate vilayets (Basra, Baghdad, and Mosul) together to take full advantage of Iraq's strategic and economic potential. To ensure this contrived nation remained intact and continued to do its bidding, the British installed a ruler they could influence; formulated a national-level governmental structure to ensure its dominance; and established a security apparatus dependent on its support." "Mesopotamia is inhabited solely by Arab tribes, and the Arabs are all Mohammedans.
The Mohammedans of the world are divided into two main sects by irreconcilable differences of religious opinion; sects which in Mesopotamia have indulged in innumerable fearful contests for supremacy, all of which have tended to sink the country further and further into moral ruin and material exhaustion.""Parliament seriously discussed evacuating Iraq and Sir Percy Cox, High Commissioner in Iraq, argued that British 'policy in Iraq was working, would bear dividends great enough to justify its continuance, and that, if prematurely curtailed, the result would be disastrous.' He also stated that a withdrawal would lead inevitably to anarchy.""The very first British action upon entering Basra was to establish "public order" in the city. Looters had sacked the city. British and Indian military police were patrolling the streets within hours of the British entry into Basra.""General Nixon stated that the troops he had with him were sufficient to enable him to inflict decisive defeat upon the Turks and to seize Baghdad, but that in order to hold the city he would require reinforcements.""Ultimately, Asquith's government failed to provide its forces in Iraq with the strategic guidance, manpower, and material means to achieve victory."